Rabu, 24 Maret 2010



Introduction to Communication Studies
Book by John Fiske; Routledge, 1990. 206 pgs.
Communication is one of those human activities that everyone recognizes but few can define satisfactorily. Communication is talking to one another, it is television spreading information. can we properly apply the term ”a subject of study” to something as diverse and multi-faceted as human communication actually is? Is there any hope of linking the study of, say, facial expression with literary criticism?
The doubts that lie behind questions like these may give rise to the view that communication is not a subject, but is a multi-disciplinary area of study. This view would propose that what the psychologists and sociologists have to tell us about human communicative behavior has very little to do with what the literary critic.
Communication is amenable to study, but that we need a number of disciplinary approaches to be able to study it comprehensively
Communication involves signs and codes. Signs are artefacts or acts that refer to something other than themselves; that is, they are signifying constructs. Codes are the systems into which signs are organized and which determine how signs may be related to each other.
Communication signs and codes are transmitted or made available to others, and that transmitting or receiving signs/codes/ communication is the practice of social relationships.
Communication is central to the life of our culture: without it culture of any kind must die. Consequently the study of communication involves the study of the culture with which it is integrated. Underlying these assumptions is a general definition of communication as ‘social interaction through messages.
Communication as the transmission of messages. It is concerned with how senders and receivers (encode and decode). With how transmitters use the channels and media of communication. It is concerned with matters like efficiency and accuracy. With sees communication as a process by which one person affects the behaviour or state of mind of another. If the effect is different from or smaller than that which was intended, tends to talk in terms of communication failure, and to look to the stages in the process to find out where the failure occurred.
Sees communication as the production and exchange of meanings. It is concerned with how messages, or texts, interact with people in order to produce meanings, that it is concerned with the role of texts in our culture. It uses terms like signification, and does not consider misunderstandings to be necessarily evidence of communication failure., they may result from cultural differences between sender and receiver. The study of communication is the study of text and culture. The main method of study is semiotics (the science of signs and meanings).
Communication as social interaction through messages in its own way. The first defines social interaction as the process by which one person relates to others, or affects the behaviour, state of mind or emotional response of another, and of course vice versa.
Many of its followers believe that intention is a crucial factor in deciding what constitutes a message. Many of its followers believe that intention is a crucial factor in deciding what constitutes a message. Thus pulling my earlobe would not be a message unless I deliberately did it as a pre-arranged signal to an auctioneer. The sender’s intention may be stated or unstated, conscious or unconscious, but must be retrievable by analysis. The message is what the sender puts into it by whatever means
For semiotics, on the other hand, the message is a construction of signs which, through interacting with the receivers, produce meanings. The sender, defined as transmitter of the message, declines in importance. The emphasis shifts to the text and how it is ‘read’. And reading is the process of discovering meanings that occurs when the reader interacts or negotiates with the text. This negotiation takes place as the reader brings aspects of his or her cultural experience to bear upon the codes and signs which make up the text. It also involves some shared understanding of what the text is about. We have only to see how different papers report the same event differently to realize how important is this understanding, this view of the world, which each paper shares with its readers. So readers with different social experiences or from different cultures may find different meanings in the same text. This is not, as we have said, necessarily evidence of communication failure.

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